Due to the fact that the device is a rather primitive sewage system, many feel that it is easy to create your own, without drawings and calculations. However, the completion of these modifications is extremely difficult. Therefore, it is best to perform on the paper quality design sewer, which will specify the length of pipe diameters, grades, and a list of materials is needed. The diameters of the pipes are caused by sanitary facilities will be connected to any to them. In a pipe which connects a sanitary device to the riser, the diameter cannot be less than the outlet of the device. If several devices are connected to one tube, it should not be less than the greater of the outlets.

When designing a sewer must take into account the sinks, bathtubs, sinks, shower trays, urinals, bidets, dishwashers, and washing machines can have a common connection to the riser. Toilets also need to separately connect to the riser (necessarily below the rest of the equipment). Otherwise, the water to be flushed down the toilet, the waste can flow through the holes in the other sanitary appliances.

Proper design of sewerage is impossible without taking into account the fact that the diameter of the pipe depends on the type and number of connected devices to them sanitary.

These diameters are determined empirically:

  1. for bidets and wash basins – 4cm,
  2. for baths and sinks – 5cm,
  3. to connect multiple downcomers, devices or waste holes without WC – diameter of 7cm,
  4. waste-holes, risers, WC – 10cm.

The design of sewerage systems should take into account the fact that the length of the toilet sewer connections must not be more than 1 meter, and to other devices – 3m. If the connection has a length greater than 3 m and a diameter of less than 7cm, it must have a diameter greater than the calculated one centimeter (for example, instead of 4 cm, make it 5). In the case where the diameter of the connection is 7cm, it should be increased to 10cm only if its length is greater than 5m. These recommendations should act when the height difference between the different endings connections of 1m-3m. If the connection is made with additional ventilation, the pipe diameter does not increase.

In the exercise of designing sewage pipes, you should be aware of the creation of the audit, through which it will be possible to clean the pipe. Those portions of the pipes that connect with the sanitary device with risers, it is necessary to conduct the shortest possible path. They should be attached to struts at an angle of more than 450 degrees between the riser and the toilet, it cannot connect other equipment as drains, which flow from the toilet for the entire cross section of the pipe. It can suck the water through a siphon of this equipment. In the case where the design requires sanitation realize bending of horizontal pipes, it is necessary to perform a bending at an angle of 900. Gravity sewage outside the home should provide biases pipes (1m pipe slope should be from 2% to 15%).

Sewage engineering, materials

In private homes, they mainly use tubes made from polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride species polyester resins which are reinforced with fiberglass. All of the above materials are quite lightweight and corrosion-resistant processes, have a low roughness coefficient. They are much more brittle and rough than ceramic and metal pipes. However, they have a greater strength and resistance to high temperatures.

When they are combined with the compounds of the socket, possibly stretching compensated automatically (approximately 10mm / m). When this is not enough, the system is mounted compensator – straight pipe sections that can move relative to each other.

Posted on Categories Blog

Biological drain cleaning


The deep biological treatment station is a local wastewater treatment plant for domestic drain cleaning. Stations of different manufacturers can differ constructively, but the principle of operation is always the same – aerobic, with constant access of oxygen, decomposition of incoming wastewaters with the help of “active silt”. Active silt is an active biomass that accumulates during the operation of the station.


The wastes entering the station are averaged over the composition, aerated and, passing alternately through a row of tanks. They are then cleaned by 95-98%. After that, they are removed from the station either by gravity (for example, into a storage or resorption well) or by a pump (into the drainage Ditch, absorbing area, reservoir of fishery value, etc.). The plant’s capacity is determined by the calculation of water consumption of 200 liters (52.8 gals) per person per day. A station designed for 5 permanent residents should have a capacity of 1 cubic meter. Meter per day.


From the existing systems of autonomous sewerage, the stations of deep biological purification have the highest degree of wastewater treatment (up to 98%) and constructive diversity (selected depending on the depth of the sewage pipe, can be completed with a post-treatment filter and ultraviolet disinfectant)


The disadvantages of such equipment can be attributed to their relatively high cost and energy compatibility. Advantages come from the efficiency, the absence of the need to periodically call the sewage machine, and, as a consequence, greater variability in the placement on the site (even indoor installation is possible) and on the tapping of purified water.


If drain cleaning does not enter the station, it continues to operate in an autonomous mode of constant water circulation. A water level sensor is installed in the receiving chamber. At the moment when the airlift pumped water into the aeration tank to the lower level, the sensor sends a signal to the control unit and the solenoid valve. The valve, triggering, directs the flow of air from the compressor to the reverse phase loop. Aeration in the aeration tank is turned off, mixing stops and all active sludge settles to the bottom – the process of denitrification begins.


At a certain distance from the bottom, the recirculation pump starts to pump out excess silt from the aerotank to the stabilizer of the activated sludge. If a mixture of activated sludge and water enters the stabilizer, some silt precipitates in the stabilizer, and the other part, together with water, returns to the receiving chamber. The water level in the receiving chamber begins to rise to the level of the sensor triggering and the transfer of the station back to the direct phase. The aeration (nitrification process) is resumed in the aeration tank, and the recirculation pump stops pumping the active sludge. In this mode of automatic switching, the station will operate until the sewage water enters it.


The diversion of purified water from the plant can be realized according to various schemes. The most common of these are Diversion of purified water by gravity into a resorption well (realized in well permeable soils with low watercut level). Diversion of treated water is done by means of a drainage pump into the reservoir, a drainage ditch, an absorbent pad. Sewage treatment facilities, for example, are used at car washes, gas stations, industrial plants, or construction sites. If the purification system is designed to purify the water from oil products, then pressure flotation is used in combination with fine filters.

Posted on Categories Blog

Residential plumbing services in Phoenix – sooner or later, everyone in the city is faced with this need. Well, you think, do you ever have to look for someone else to replace tubes or batteries, repairing plumbing, household appliance, etc. What did you do in that case? You, probably, looked for knowledgeable friends, and they turned to the housing department workers, or were looking for some other way? There is no need to be prideful when deciding to look for a professional’s help. We need to know only human contact which carries high quality residential plumbing services.


Residential plumbing services in Phoenix. When and where you want to call?


You can call in any situation, when it comes to domestic water supply, heating, sanitation. Repair, replacement, installation of bathtubs, toilets, faucets, pipes, and many other functions can be done.

Important: 602-737-2658 residential plumbers are waiting for your call every day 24/7 throughout the whole year for your convenience. For example, on Sunday evening, and then what to do? Just call plumber. Professional contact numbers you find in the corresponding section.

Quality, reliable, inexpensive!

This is the main principle of the  residential plumbing services in Phoenix. All work performed is covered by a 6 months warranty. If, during this time, there is a problem with the residential plumbing and we are at fault, the problem will be fixed as soon as possible.

Over the years of practice, however, such cases are far and few in between each other. Most often, the work was performed at the highest level. Our customers give only positive feedback about the quality, professionalism, responsibility and care that we deliver every time. Many of them have become loyal and permanent customers that rely on us for the best plumbing services. That is, in their apartments the plumber’s hand has been applied to many details: pipes, radiators, household appliances and all other sanitary equipment.


One advantage of this is the plumber’s is affordable prices. Purchasing consumables can be carried out as a plumber, and by the owners. If you do not understand what you need for the situation, and rely on the issue of procurement plumber on call, pre-expressing their wishes. He knows exactly what to buy and where to buy it from. 

The main thing is to not try to do residential plumbing work yourself if you do not have the required education and work experience. The consequences of such an act can be extremely disastrous. Everyone must do their job. Allow the residential plumbers do the work correctly for you. They themselves will be engaged in that, which brings you satisfaction!

Posted on Categories Blog

As should be the installation of the mixer in the bathroom

A very important procedure for any home is to install a master mixer, after taking into account the quality of drinking water. Of course, for the installation, you can use the services of a professional plumber.

First, there are thing we should say about choosing a faucet for bath or kitchen.

Although certain rules in this matter don’t exist yet, it is desirable to adhere to certain guidelines:

  • Acquire a device that will fulfil the object specifications (size, operating parameters);
  • do not use mixers with working bodies which are made of low quality materials (silumin);
  • take into account the aesthetic component products (so that it can fit into the existing interior space).

In general, it is desirable not to show the fanaticism in the economy and buy mixers with normal consumer characteristics, taking into account the fundamental relation to any goods between price and quality.

Install faucet in the bathroom on their own

Firstly, it should be installation noted that the of the mixer should be carried out at the final stage of finishing works, otherwise the product may be distorted during construction and maintenance operations.

If the filter is to be installed correctly by the property owner, thee are some preparatory measures that must be provided:

  • gasket aqueduct (if necessary);
  •  finishing facilities (for example, tile );
  •  construction of places to connect the mixer.

Second, you need to prepare a minimum set of tools and materials to carry out installation work. Thus, to install the faucet in the bathroom you’ll need a wrench, hammer, fastening and sealing material in the form of tape.

The third stage is considered to be a direct installation. It is first checked devices and equipment produced visual inspection of the mixer.

Then carried out by overlapping routes for the hot and cold water and get to work:

  1. If necessary, dismantle the already installed device;
  2. Check the integrity of the connection points of the mixer;
  3. With the use of sealing materials, screw the outlet into the fitting special cams. Then use the wrench and make 5 – 6 turns to achieve their arrangement such that further it was possible to install the faucet without warps (the arrangement of the eccentrics can be controlled using a spirit level).
  4. Ideally, they should completely cover the space contiguity output pipes to a wall or finishing materials;
  5. By the return nozzles eccentrics bolted with the key mixer. It is very important to follow the steps carefully in order not to damage the device, the clamping coupling nuts should be alternately pull-ups in order to prevent buckling of the mixer.
  6. Bolted to the main body of the mixer, spout and shower hose.
  7. With punch and fasteners in any convenient place on the wall is fixed a special mount for the shower head. The optimal location of the brackets is the position in which it will be possible to take a shower.

In the final work, supplying water to the main line (by opening the stop valves) and test performance of the mixer, and the tightness of all joints. In addition, when installing the mixer it is important to properly overwrite tiles to solution-grout between all the technological gaps (for example between the tiles and the pipe).

In order to install a faucet in the bathroom, it is important to apply seals and rings, which come with the product. Thus, you can perform the installation work in a relatively short period, and provide for your family extra comfort.

How to choose a faucet for the bathroom:

the basic rules

A bathroom in a modern home is a functional space, which is why the design and decoration of this type are given special attention. The widespread use of such rooms showers, whirlpool baths, decorative screens, mirrors clear evidence.

The sanitary apparatus for supplying liquid to be adjustable volume and temperature – nevertheless remains mixer whatever audio quality was inherent to said room, perhaps the most important of its accessory. Therefore, it is very important to know how to choose the best faucet for the bathroom.

Structural types of mixers

Of course, today the manufacturers offer a wide range of mixers, which differ both in terms of price and consumer characteristics, while each user task is the selection of the equipment that will be able to satisfy individual needs. However, in order to decide what is best bathroom faucet, it is recommended that you get acquainted with the most common structures of representatives of the sanitary equipment.

Twin valve

They are representative of the classic series and are characterized by having in its structure two independent crane journal boxes, capable of changing the flow of hot and cold water (by means of their rotation). The bath faucets of this type do not have a high cost and can be operated a long time period. If we talk about the shortcomings of this series, we can distinguish fluid adjusting inconvenience and the need for periodic replacement of the seals (present as part of the crane-boxes).

Minimizing these limitations is achieved by using twin valve design mixers with a ceramic valve with a rotational mechanism (provide quality water supply with a minimum angle of rotation of the handle (90 or 180 °). However, the use of these devices requires the presence of an aqueous composition with a high-quality characteristic (lack of mechanical suspensions can deform ceramic valve) that requires the installation in water supply network of additional filter assemblies.

Single-lever (joystick) faucets

They are representatives of the innovative series, but nevertheless already gained predisposition of many users. This is primarily due to their ease of application when the water pressure and the temperature can instantaneously be adjusted with one hand (by moving the handle up and down or right-left).

The possibility of such adjustment is achieved by using in the construction of devices of ball elements or ceramic cartridges, which also requires the presence of purified water.

Thermostatic mixers Bathroom

As the name suggests, we can immediately conclude that the operation of said mixers is due to the embedded thermostat that ensure constancy temperature (set by the user), regardless of external changes. That is, from a constructive point of view, these mixers are equipped with temperature control and flow, which provide the desired operating mode. And although the cost of such devices is significantly higher than traditional counterparts, among them security benefits can be identified and economy (fast water flow with the desired characteristics).

Contactless faucets in the bathroom

Capable of providing high-quality liquid mixing and flow without human physical impact. Their design is made so that the flow of water is provided on the basis of the infrared sensor signals (embedded in the spout) and the retraction of the arms. In most cases, these mixers are used as innovative design attributes and are used in restaurants or cafes, but if desired, can be installed in a residential complex.

Material for a bathtub mixer

In order to properly choose a faucet in the bathroom, you need to study carefully the type and quality of materials that can be used for their manufacture.

Faucets made with cheap materials quickly breakdown and cannot act as trusted devices. In view of the usefulness of those silumin mixers justified only for temporary use (for repair apartments, for a period of substitution water networks and so forth.).


It is the highest quality material for the mixer, because in addition to the reliability and durability (brass does not corrode) these elements differ environmental neutrality and can easily be used in constructions of any functional purpose. For additional protection, brass body from external factors outer part of nickel and chrome appliances. The best available coating and thus it is considered chromium, which is durable and hygienic.

Synthetic plastics

In most cases, used for the manufacture of handles, watering cans, decorative trim elements. Moreover, to simulate a reliable material such as a surface covering made aged bronze, gold or chromium. About how to choose a watering can to the mixer be found in the next article.

Individual factors influencing the choice of mixer

Of course, the process of selecting the most suitable mixer should be approached on the basis of the individual characteristics of each facility, that is, its size, shape, structure, design should fully meet the user, both technically and aesthetically.

As a consequence, by performing a selection of the most suitable plumbing items, you should consider the following circumstances:

–    features mixer installation (wall mounting, mounting on a sink or bathroom fixture using decorative rack);

–    type hydraulic connection (fixed pipework, flexible hoses);

–    rotatable spout (required using a mixer, for a bathtub, and for the sink);

–    the length of the spout (plumbing determined parameters, in which the liquid will rush).

Posted on Categories Blog

As a homeowner, your first reaction to handling a clogged drain pipe is to use a plunger. In some cases, this may work, but there are also situations where this simply isn’t enough to get the job done. When unclogging a drain, the next idea that you may come up with is the use of a chemical drain cleaning solution. However, plumbing experts don’t usually recommend this method of drain cleaning due to its risk reward ratio. Imagine: If the chemical solution doesn’t go far enough down the unclogged drain, the chemical will just sit in the drain and corrode the pipe. This creates a far greater risk to your drain pipes than it does good.

We’ll assess the situation to come up with the best solution to unclog the drain pipe whether it’s a:

  • Sink drain/ bathtub drain
  • Toilet drain
  • Shower drain
  • Sewer drain

Drain Cleaning

There are two methods of drain cleaning that will take care of any clogged drain pipe:

1) the Plumbing Snake

2) the Hydro Jet

Both methods of drain cleaning have their own advantages and their disadvantages. In this article, we will help you understand what approach you should take when using each of these drain cleaners.

Method #1: Plumbing Snake

The plumbing snake is a device that uses a metal rod with a pointed tip that pushes through whatever is creating the blockage. This method of drain cleaning the least expensive method to choose from, but is still quite effective in most scenarios. The metal rod is thin, making it perfect for avoiding any possible damage to a delicate pipe that is older or made of a material that can easily be damaged.

The disadvantages that come with the plumbing snake is its lack of forcefulness. In some cases, the plumbing snake simply isn’t powerful enough to break through or push the items causing the blockage in the drain. Unclogging a drain can require more than a pointed tip to fully clean the drain in some scenarios. Another issue with the plumbing snake is the fact that it’s so thin. For sewer drains that are larger than a toilet drain, the plumbing snake isn’t large enough to clean the wide pipe and unclog the drain.

Method #2: Hydro Jetting

Hydro jetting is another method of drain cleaning that we consider to be the most efficient way to unclog a drain. A hydro jet is a machine that sprays pressurized water down the drain, which can break up any blockage built up in the drain. We typically use hydro jetting to take care of the most severe cases of drain cleaning for items such as sand, branches, and major grease build ups.

The disadvantages of hydro jetting are also its most valuable asset—its forcefulness. Due to the power of the pressurized water spray, it can possibly damage delicate pipes that are older or made of materials that can’t handle the force. Hydro jetting is also the more expensive option to choose because of its efficiency.

Unsure About How to Unclog Your Drain Pipe?

That is why you should contact an expert plumber to handle the issue for you. So, if you are in the Phoenix area, the best decision that you can make is to hire the drain cleaning specialists at Custom Cooling and Plumbing services.

Posted on Categories Blog